Collection - the gathering of waste, including the preliminary sorting and preliminary storage of waste for the purposes of transport to a waste treatment facility.

Separate collection - the collection where a waste stream is kept separately by type and nature so as to facilitate a specific treatment.

Recovery - any waste management operation that diverts a waste material from the waste stream and which results in a certain product with a potential economic or ecological benefit. Recovery mainly refers to the following operations:

Material recovery, i.e. recycling,

Energy recovery, i.e. re-use a fuel,

Biological recovery, e.g. composting,


Disposal - any waste management operation serving or carrying out the final treatment and disposal of waste:

Final treatment:


Biological, physical, chemical treatment resulting in products or residues that are discarded, i.e. going to final disposal.

Final disposal:

Deposit into or onto land (e.g. landfill), including specially engineered landfill,

Deep injection,

Surface impoundment,

Release into water bodies,

Permanent storage.